Apple has a history of stunting the web’s progress on its platforms. On iOS, Apple doesn’t allow fully independent third-party browsers, requiring all apps to leverage its Safari browser when rendering web-based content. While browsers like Chrome and Opera are available in the App Store, they must use Apple’s Safari browser behind the scenes to render web pages, rather than their own. That means Apple has a monopoly on how iPhone and iPad users access the web. To push developers toward building native apps on iOS rather than using web technologies, Apple ignores popular parts of the open web specification that other browsers implement, to its own benefit.
A technology called WebRTC, for example, allows video calling in a web browser without additional software. It powers tools like Google Meet. But Apple was incredibly slow to implement the specification, leaving out key pieces of functionality, and the technology didn’t work when embedded inside apps.
Apple also handicapped an emerging standard called Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) — which, like Electron, allows developers to build native-like apps for both desktop and mobile — by partially implementing it in a way that makes it too inconsistent to rely on. PWA doesn’t have the same problem if users open apps in Chrome or Firefox, but iPhone and iPad users can’t install third-party browsers, which makes PWA-based technology a non-starter.
Apple’s subtle, anti-competitive practices don’t look terrible in isolation, but together they form a clear strategy: Make it so painful to build with web-based technology on Apple platforms that developers won’t bother. Now that the App Store is not accepting apps built using Electron, developers will likely find creative ways to work around it, but Apple is setting up for a continual cat-and-mouse game as it plans to exert more control over which apps can run on the platform in the future.
Given the recent demise of Presto and EdgeHTML rendering engines, and dominant market share growth for Chrome (and its Chromium engine), can we make a case for browser engine diversity in a decreasingly diverse browser engine world? In this talk, we’ll talk about web compatibility, interoperability, the web standards process, and hopefully conclude that we should care about these things in 2019.
media attribute on a
<link> element seems the next best thing. Andy Kirk has come up with a few combinations:
Code language: HTML
<!-- Print (Edge doesn't apply to print otherwise) IE 10, 11 Edge Chrome 29+, Opera 16+, Safari 6.1+, iOS 7+, Android ~4.4+ FF 29+ --> <link rel="stylesheet" href="your-stylesheet.css" media=" only print, only all and (-ms-high-contrast: none), only all and (-ms-high-contrast: active), only all and (pointer: fine), only all and (pointer: coarse), only all and (pointer: none), only all and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (min-color-index:0), only all and (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (min-resolution: 3e1dpcm) "> <!-- Print (Edge doesn't apply to print otherwise) Edge, Chrome 39+, Opera 26+, Safari 9+, iOS 9+, Android ~5+, Android UCBrowser ~11.8+ FF 47+ --> <link rel="stylesheet" href="your-stylesheet.css" media=" only print, only all and (pointer: fine), only all and (pointer: coarse), only all and (pointer: none), only all and (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (display-mode:browser), (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (display-mode:fullscreen) ">
I’m one of those weirdos who never switched to Chrome from Firefox, and the more marketshare Chrome has gained, the less inclined I am to use it for anything other than testing my sites in. I remember the days when Internet Explorer 6 was the assumed default, and I never want to see that again.
Microsoft might have celebrated the death of Internet Explorer 6, but if Google isn’t careful then it might just resurrect an ugly era of the internet where “works best with Chrome” is a modern nightmare.
[T]he web looks more and more like a feudal system, where the geography of the web has been partitioned off by the Frightful Five. Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple and Amazon are our lord and protectors, exacting a royal sum for our online behaviors. We’re the serfs and tenants, providing homage inside their walled fortresses. Noble upstarts are erased or subsumed under their existing order.