JavaScript

The browser as a runtime environment - Robust Client-Side JavaScript

There are several relevant browsers in numerous versions running on different operating systems on devices with different hardware abilities, internet connectivity, etc. The fact that the web client is not under their control maddens developers from other domains. They see the web as the most hostile software runtime environment. They understand the diversity of web clients as a weakness.

Proponents of the web counter that this heterogeneity and inconsistency is in fact a strength of the web. The web is open, it is everywhere, it has a low access threshold. The web is adaptive and keeps on absorbing new technologies and fields of applications. No other software environment so far has demonstrated this degree of flexibility.

Quoted content by Mathias Schäfer is licensed under CC BY-SA. See the other snippets from Robust Client-Side JavaScript.

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Robust Client-Side JavaScript - A Developer's Guide

Immediately-Invoked Function Expression (IIFE), a.k.a. self-executing anonymous functions

Javascript

(function () {
	// Safely declare your names inside this function.
	var variabl1 = 1;
	let variable2 = 2;
	const constant = 3;
	function someFunction() {}
	class SomeClass {}
})();

At the heart of this pattern, there is an anonymous function function () {…}. This is a function expression that simply creates a function and returns it as a value, in contrast to a function declaration that creates a function and inevitably binds it to a name.

The braces around the anonymous function, ( function() {…} ), allow the parser to recognize the function expression correctly. Finally, the braces at the end () call the function immediately. That is why it is called immediately-invoked function expression.

Quoted content is licensed under CC BY-SA.

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A love letter to jQuery

It hurts me when I hear them say things like “you don’t need jQuery”. They don’t remember how dark it was before your light. We needed you then and we still need you now. I like the way you do things and although the years have passed, for certain tasks, you still do what you do better than anyone else could. I trust you. I know you and you know me. There will always be other ways we could do things, but I know I can rely on you and you’re always there when I need you to be.

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Introduction to HTML5 form validation

I recently embarked on improving the client-side form validation for a client. There were about 400 lines of form validation code stuffed inside a 1000 line form_helper.js. I looked for lightweight form validation scripts but after some hemming and hawing I decided to try my hand (again) at native HTML5 Form Validation.

If you’ve ever experimented with HTML5 Form Validation, you’ve probably been disappointed. The out-of-box experience isn’t quite what you want. Adding the required attribute to inputs works wonderfully. However the styling portion with input:invalid sorta sucks because empty inputs are trigger the :invalid state, even before the user has interacted with the page.

I finally sat down and spent a couple days trying to make HTML5 Form Validation work the way I want it. I had the following goals:

  1. Leverage browser-level feedback, free focus management and accessible labelling
  2. Only validate inputs on submit
  3. Styling with .error class

With this wishlist in hand, I set off and found a solution that works with only 6 lines of code.

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How many people have JavaScript disabled or unavailable?

In 2013, the UK’s Government Digital Service did an experiment to determine how many of their users weren’t receiving JavaScript. You might assume, as I did years ago, that the only two options were either that users would have JavaScript enabled, or have disabled it explicitly via their browser’s settings or an addon. Unfortunately, those aren’t the only two options. The majority of users that don’t receive JavaScript likely don’t do so by choice.

They found that 1.1% of users didn’t execute their JavaScript test. Of those, only 0.2% either explicitly disabled JavaScript or used a browser that didn’t support it. The remainingly 0.9% did not indicate they didn’t support JavaScript, but were not executing the test.

‘noscript’ tags will only be followed by browsers that explicitly have JavaScript disabled or don’t support JavaScript at all. So a significant number of people had a JavaScript enabled browser but still didn’t run the scripts successfully.

It’s hard to know exactly why these browsers didn’t run the JavaScript, but a number of possible reasons are:

  • corporate or local blocking or stripping of JavaScript elements
  • existing JavaScript errors in the browser (ie from browser add-ons, toolbars etc)
  • page being left between requesting the base image and the script/noscript image
  • browsers that pre-load pages they incorrectly predict you will visit
  • network errors, especially on mobile devices
  • any undoubtedly many more I haven’t even thought about…

The takeaway? Do not assume that everyone has JavaScript, or will have it execute reliably even if they haven’t disabled it.

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Go beyond console.log with the Firefox Debugger

Promo art for the Firefox Debugger Playground: a styled insect with the words "go beyond console.log" below it.

console.log is no debugger. It’s great for figuring out what your JavaScript app is up to, but it’s limited to spitting out a minimal amount of information. If your code is complex, you’ll need a proper debugger. That’s why we’ve added a new section to the Firefox Devtools Playground that’s all about debugging. We’ve built four basic lessons that use the Firefox Debugger to examine and repair a simple JavaScript to-do app.

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