While this doesn’t seem to have been updated since 2014, it has a bunch of links to best practices for reducing jank and improving performance.
I’m passionate about image performance optimisation and making images load fast on the web. One of the most interesting areas of exploration is placeholders: what to show when the image hasn’t loaded yet.
During the last days I have come across some loading techniques that use SVG, and I would like to describe them in this post.
Do you want a deep and nerdy dive into the web browser rendering and how the upcoming WebRender rendering engine for Firefox will use the GPU more like games currently do?
[T]here’s another big piece of Servo technology that’s not in Firefox Quantum quite yet, though it’s coming soon. That’s WebRender, which is being added to Firefox as part of the Quantum Render project.
What do infinite scrolling, lazy loading, and online advertisements all have in common?
They need to know about—and react to—the visibility of elements on a page!
Unfortunately, knowing whether or not an element is visible has traditionally been difficult on the Web. Most solutions listen for scroll and resize events, then use DOM APIs like getBoundingClientRect() to manually calculate where elements are relative to the viewport. This usually works, but it’s inefficient and doesn’t take into account other ways in which an element’s visibility can change, such as a large image finally loading higher up on the page, which pushes everything else downward.
Things get worse for advertisements, since real money is involved. As Malte Ubl explained in his presentation at JSConf Iceland, advertisers don’t want to pay for ads that never get displayed. To make sure they know when ads are visible, they cover them in dozens of tiny, single-pixel Flash movies whose visibility can be inferred from their framerate. On platforms without Flash, like smartphones, advertisers set up timers to force browsers to recalculate the position of each ad every few milliseconds.
These techniques kill performance, drain batteries, and would be completely unnecessary if the browser could just notify us whenever an element’s visibility changed.
That’s what IntersectionObserver does.
In the nooks and crannies of the web performance discipline there are no simple answers, except “do your research”. Rely on analytics to decide if bundling is a good idea for your HTTP/2-driven site. Do you have a lot of users that only go to one or two pages and leave? Maybe don’t waste your time bundling stuff. Do your users navigate deeply throughout your site and spend significant time there? Maybe bundle.
This much is clear to me: If you move your HTTP/1-optimized site to an HTTP/2 host and change nothing in your client-side architecture, it’s not going to be a big deal. So don’t trust blanket statements some web developer writing blog posts (i.e., me). Figure out how your users behave, what optimizations makes the best sense for your situation, and adjust your code accordingly. Good luck!
So this is a really interesting way to determine which, if any CSS rules are unused in a stylesheet, site-wide:
Part of this story could certainly be about deleting CSS that is determined to be “unused” in a project. I know there is incredible demand for this kind of tooling. I feel like there are some developers damn near frothing at the mouth to blast their CSS through some kind of fancy tool to strip away anything unneeded.
Here’s how one company I heard from was doing it:
- They injected a script onto the page for some subset of users.
- The script would look at the CSSOM and find every single selector in the CSS for that page.
- It would also run a querySelectorAll(“*”) and find every single DOM node on that page.
- It would compare those two sets and find all selectors that seemed to be unused.
- In order to get the best results, it would fire this script after a random amount of seconds, on a random set of users, in a random set of conditions. Even with this, it needed a lot of data over a long period of time.
- After that had run for long enough, there was a set of CSS selectors that seemed likely to be unused.
- To be sure, unique background images were applied to all those selectors.
- After applying those and waiting for another length of time, the server logs were checked to make sure those images were never accessed. If they were, that selector was used, and would have to stay.
Ultimately, the unused selectors could safely be deleted from the CSS.
Whew! That’s an awful lot of work to remove some CSS.
But as you can imagine, it’s fairly safe. Imagine just checking one page’s CSS coverage. You’ll definitely find a bunch of unused CSS. One page, in one specific state, is not representative of your entire website.
Well, this settles that.