These snippets are my attempt to save and organize various bits of code, best practices, and resources relating to web development and design. They also function as a to do list of sorts, for things I want to implement in my own code, but haven't yet. The concept is inspired by Jeremy Keith's links and CSS-Tricks, among other things. Enjoy.

Dark mode images: reducing brightness and contrast

A good rule is to decrease the brightness and contrast of images a bit so that it looks comfortable to the eyes when it’s against a dark background. A super bright image on a super dark background can be jarring and dimming the image reduces some of that heavy contrast.


The CSS filter() function is more than capable of handling this for us:

Code language: CSS

/* Apply the filter directly on the body tag */
body.dark-theme img {
  filter: brightness(.8) contrast(1.2);
}/* Or apply it via media query */
@media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {
  img {
    filter: brightness(.8) contrast(1.2);

The color-scheme meta tag

Code language: HTML

<meta name="color-scheme" content="dark light">

The browser will use this information in tandem with the user’s browser or device settings to determine what colors to use for everything from background and foregrounds to form controls and scrollbars. The primary use for <meta name="color-scheme"> is to indicate compatibility with—and order of preference for—light and dark color modes.

Standard metadata names - HTML: HyperText Markup Language | MDN

When this meta tag is added, the browser takes the user’s color scheme preferences into consideration when rendering UA-controlled elements of the page (like a <button>). It renders colors for the root background, form controls, and spell-check features (as well as any other UA-controlled styles) based on the user’s preference.


Although themes are manually styled for the most part (which overrides the UA styles), informing the browser about the supported themes helps to avoid even the slightest chance of a potential FOIT situation. This is true for those occasions where HTML has rendered but CSS is still waiting to load.

A Complete Guide to Dark Mode on the Web | CSS-Tricks

Accessible Text Labels For All

When you navigate this page using VoiceOver, and use the Form Controls menu, you’ll get a list of all form controls on the page, including the Add to Cart buttons.

Quickly scanning these buttons you can tell that they provide very little value, as there is no way to tell which product each button corresponds to. How does a user know which button they want to go to and press if they don’t know which product it corresponds to?


A popular example of Voice recognition software used to browse the Web is Dragon Naturally Speaking.


Seeing it in action is the best way to get an idea of how it’s used. So, to quickly demonstrate how it is used on the Web, Level Access created a video demoing Dragon Naturally Speaking to fill out a form on a page. The following video is a short clip from their video which you can find and watch in full on [YouTube].


When the dragon user (in the video) wants to select a form control, he speaks out the visual text label of that control. This is one of many reasons why visual labels are important in user interfaces.

So when we have a series of Add to Cart buttons, a dragon user will speak the label of the button in order to interact with it. This is why adding text in the middle of the string makes it inaccessible. The content in the middle of the string would break the visible label. The user would be telling dragon to interact with a button whose label is not what it visually appears to be.


So whenever you need to add additional text to a visible label, it best come after what’s visually shown.

Similarly, always ensure the accessible name (announced by screen readers) matches the visual label as much as possible. This means that you’ll also want to avoid adding a label using aria-label that does not match the text label that is shown on a control.

Idle Until Urgent

A few weeks ago I was looking at some of the performance metrics for my site. Specifically, I wanted to see how I was doing on our newest metric, first input delay (FID). My site is just a blog (and doesn’t run much JavaScript), so I expected to see pretty good results.

Input delay that’s less than 100 milliseconds is typically perceived as instant by users, so the performance goal we recommend (and the numbers I was hoping to see in my analytics) is FID < 100ms for 99% of page loads.

To my surprise, my site’s FID was 254ms at the 99th percentile. And while that’s not terrible, the perfectionist in me just couldn’t let that slide. I had to fix it!


[W]hile I was trying to solve my issue I stumbled upon a pretty interesting performance strategy that I want to share (it’s the primary reason I’m writing this article).

I’m calling the strategy: idle until urgent.

My performance problem

First input delay (FID) is a metric that measures the time between when a user first interacts with your site (for a blog like mine, that’s most likely them clicking a link) and the time when the browser is able to respond to that interaction (make a request to load the next page).

The reason there might be a delay is if the browser’s main thread is busy doing something else (usually executing JavaScript code). So to diagnose a higher-than-expected FID, you should start by creating a performance trace of your site as it’s loading (with CPU and network throttling enabled) and look for individual tasks on the main thread that take a long time to execute. Then once you’ve identified those long tasks, you can try to break them up into smaller tasks.

Here’s what I found when doing a performance trace of my site:

A performance trace of's JavaScript while loading (with network/CPU throttling enabled).

So what’s taking so long to run?

Well, if you look at the tails of this flame chart, you won’t see any single functions that are clearly taking up the bulk of the time. Most individual functions are run in less than 1ms, but when you add them all up, it’s taking more than 100ms to run them in a single, synchronous call stack.

This is the JavaScript equivalent of death by a thousand cuts.

Since the problem is all these functions are being run as part of a single task, the browser has to wait until this task finishes to respond to user interaction. So clearly the solution is to break up this code into multiple tasks[.]


A perfect example of a component that really needs to have its initialization code broken up can be illustrated by zooming closer down into this performance trace. Mid-way through the main() function, you’ll see one of my components uses the Intl.DateTimeFormat API[.]


Creating this object took 13.47 milliseconds!

The thing is, the Intl.DateTimeFormat instance is created in the component’s constructor, but it’s not actually used until it’s needed by other components that reference it to format dates. However, this component doesn’t know when it’s going to be referenced, so it’s playing it safe and instantiating the Int.DateTimeFormat object right away.


Idle Until Urgent

After spending a lot of time thinking about this problem, I realized that the evaluation strategy I really wanted was one where my code would initially be deferred to idle periods but then run immediately as soon as it’s needed. In other words: idle-until-urgent.

Idle-until-urgent sidesteps most of the downsides I described in the previous section. In the worst case, it has the exact same performance characteristics as lazy evaluation, and in the best case it doesn’t block interactivity at all because execution happens during idle periods.