Snippets

These snippets are my attempt to save and organize various bits of code, best practices, and resources relating to web development and design. They also function as a to do list of sorts, for things I want to implement in my own code, but haven’t yet. The concept is inspired by Jeremy Keith’s links and CSS-Tricks, among other things. Enjoy.

URI vs. URL: What's the Difference?

URI

A URI identifies a resource either by location, or a name, or both. More often than not, most of us use URIs that defines a location to a resource. The fact that a URI can identify a resources by both name and location has lead to a lot of the confusion in my opionion. A URI has two specializations known as URL and URN.

URN

A URI identifies a resource by name in a given namespace but not define how the resource maybe obtained. This type of URI is called a URN. You may see URNs used in XML Schema documents to define a namespace, usually using a syntax such as:

<xsd:schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
            xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
            targetNamespace="urn:example"

Here the targetNamespace use a URN. It defines an identifier to the namespace, but it does not define a location.

URL

A URL is a specialization of URI that defines the network location of a specific resource. Unlike a URN, the URL defines how the resource can be obtained. We use URLs every day in the form of http://damnhandy.com, etc. But a URL doesn’t have to be an HTTP URL, it can be ftp://damnhandy.com, smb://damnhandy.com, etc.

The Difference Between Them

So what is the difference between URI and URL? It’s not as clear cut as I would like, but here’s my stab at it:

A URI is an identifier for some resource, but a URL gives you specific information as to obtain that resource. A URI is a URL and as one commenter pointed out, it is now considered incorrect to use URL when describing applications. Generally, if the URL describes both the location and name of a resource, the term to use is URI. Since this is generally the case most of us encounter everyday, URI is the correct term.

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Drupal 8, behaviors, and jQuery Once

When porting some front-end code from Drupal 7 to Drupal 8, I ran into an unexpected change in the use of jQuery.once(). In Drupal 7, you’d do this in a behavior:

Javascript

Drupal.behaviors.exampleBehavior = {
  attach: function(context, settings) {
    $('.example', context).once('example-behavior', function() {
      // Do stuff.
    });
  },
  detach: function(context, settings, trigger) {
    $('.example', context).removeOnce('example-behavior', function() {
      // Undo stuff.
    });
  }
};

In Drupal 8, however, you can’t pass in a function to jQuery.once(), as the API for that jQuery plugin has changed. It now acts like jQuery.filter(), in that it filters out any elements that have already been processed so they aren’t processed more than once, and returns a jQuery collection. So, in Drupal 8, the example would be:

Javascript

Drupal.behaviors.exampleBehavior = {
  attach: function(context, settings) {
    $('.example', context).once('example-behavior').each(function() {
      // Do stuff.
    });
  },
  detach: function(context, settings, trigger) {
    $('.example', context).removeOnce('example-behavior').each(function() {
      // Undo stuff.
    });
  }
};

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BEM class selectors and the Sass ampersand

The Sass ampersand is incredibly useful in building selectors based on the parent selector, but it has a limitation. Take the following nested BEM-style selectors:

Sass

.component {
  // A BEM modifier.
  &--reversed {
    background: white;
    border-color: lightgray;
 
    // Target a descendent only when the parent has the modifier? Not exactly...
    &__child-element {
      background: rebeccapurple;
    }
  }
}

The linked post explains the problem:

Wait, why is this not working? The problem is that the & has a scope of .component--reversed, so &__child-element compiles to .component--reversed__child-element, which doesn’t [exist] in the markup.

The fix is to save the & to a variable in the parent and use that in the child selector:

Sass

.component {
  // Save the current value of & as $self.
  $self: &;
 
  &--reversed {
    background: white;
    border-color: lightgray;
 
    // Print $self in place of & to get the correct scope of the parent above.
    #{$self}__child-element {
      background: rebeccapurple;
    }
  }
}

The compiled CSS for that element is now .component--reversed .component__child-element[.]

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Allow Ctrl- and Shift-clicking links in event handlers

I just recently updated a bunch of my click handlers to not act when the Ctrl or Shift keys are pressed during the click, so that links can be opened in new tabs or windows by the user if so wanted:

Javascript

// Don't do anything and defer to the default action if a modifier key
// was pressed during the click (to open the link in a new tab, window,
// etc.) - note that this is a truthy check rather than a strict check
// for the existence of and boolean true value of the various event
// properties:
// * https://ambientimpact.com/web/snippets/conditional-statements-and-truthy-values-robust-client-side-javascript
// * https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/MouseEvent/ctrlKey
// * https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/MouseEvent/shiftKey
if (event.ctrlKey || event.shiftKey) {
	return;
}

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