These snippets are my attempt to save and organize various bits of code, best practices, and resources relating to web development and design. They also function as a to do list of sorts, for things I want to implement in my own code, but haven't yet. The concept is inspired by Jeremy Keith's links and CSS-Tricks, among other things. Enjoy.

What is the Value of Browser Diversity?

In May 2019 I attended a talk by Mike Taylor who works on webcompat at Mozilla. Mike told the sordid story of window.event, a non-standard IE invention that was replicated in Konqueror, which showed up in Webkit, which stuck around in Blink, and was now Mike’s problem in Firefox. It was a good story fraught with ups and downs and literal “Breaking the Web” level changes for a tiny feature rollout.

At the end of the talk Mike threw out a pretty prescient question (Edge had just released its Chromium beta) and I’ve been mulling over it ever since:

What is the value of browser diversity? If Firefox switched to Chromium tomorrow, what would we lose?

– Mike Taylor, a traitor (apparently)

Mike made it clear that the question was purely theoretical and no serious talk about this was happening at Mozilla at the time. Nonetheless, it was a challenging thought. Throwing away all sunk costs, what is the value of the colossal expense required to employ engineering teams to chase Chrome’s tail?

I’ve thought about these questions for over a year and narrowed my feelings of browser diversity down to two major value propositions:

  1. Browser diversity keeps the Web deliberately slow
  2. Browser diversity fosters consensus and cooperation over corporate rule

They are similar, but slightly different concepts for me.

Slow, like brisket.

I think the Web platform’s most frustrating aspect is also its greatest asset: it’s slow. It’s not just slow, it’s “it took 10 years to ship the <main> element which is just a spicy <div>” kind of slow. It’s glacial.

This can be agonizing while you wait for a much needed feature to roll out in all browsers, only to find out five years in the process one browser refuses the entire premise of the feature (RIP HTML Imports). The big tradeoff is that web platform features have to run the gauntlet and more thinking is applied over time: robustness, naming, internationalization, accessibility, security, etc. all have proper time for consideration and aren’t rushed through like it’s a product sprint.


Cooperation, not corporation.

Browser diversity means browser vendors are hindered from shipping features that only benefit themselves (e.g. ActiveX in IE, -webkit-box-reflect, etc). Good ideas have to be open and meet a pseudo-requirement of ubiquitous utility. To make good platform features requires consensus, not competition, and the web’s potential is born out of cooperation, not a single corporation.

It’s hard to quantify this, but if all aspects of the Web (development, browsing, searching, hosting) are ceded to a single corporation, all it takes is one heavy-handed manager or executive hellbent on hitting some OKRs to push their thumb on the scale of the Web. If the Web is governed by a single corporation, it will start looking like that corporation’s vision of the Web, ultimately limiting its own potential. Trading short term gain on new shiny features for long term vision.

Why browser diversity matters: Chrome unilaterally creates de facto standards

Yet another great example of why browser diversity matters and why Chrome’s overwhelming presence in both mobile and desktop use is harmful to the open web: some developers mistake Chrome’s adoption of an API as a web standard, when both Mozilla and Apple have serious concerns about the security of said API:

In issue #509 of JavaScript Weekly, Chrome’s new File System Access API was mistakenly referred to as an “open standard.” The author probably assumed that a feature with a specification and an implementation in Chrome must therefore be a web standard, but that is not necessarily the case.

The API in question is currently hosted by the Web Incubator Community Group (WICG), a place where browser vendors can propose, discuss, and develop new web platform features, and receive feedback from the wider community.


Google has been developing the File System Access API for at least the past two years and decided to ship it in Chrome in October (last month). As part of this process, Google asked both Apple and Mozilla for their official positions on the API. So far, their responses have not been positive (Apple, Mozilla).

It seems that Google decided to ship the File System Access API in Chrome without endorsement from Apple or Mozilla because it believes that this feature “moves the web platform forward”:

Interoperability risk is the risk that browsers will not eventually converge on an interoperable implementation of the proposed feature. … If a change has high interop/compat risk but is expected to significantly move the web forward, Chromium will sometimes welcome it.

Standardization and support from Apple or Mozilla is not a requirement for shipping a web platform feature in Chrome. However, because of Chrome’s large market share, there is a risk of such a feature becoming a de facto standard:

Changes to Chrome’s functionality create de facto standards. Market participants must adhere to these standards or risk their technology no longer being compatible with most websites.

Accessibility issues with toasts and how to mitigate them

You may have recently read Adrian Roselli’s Scraping Burned Toast, Chris Coyier’s summary of the current “toast conversation”. Or maybe you’ve browsed the GitHub repository for A Standard ‘Toast’ UI Element and its WICG discussion thread.

Or maybe you’re familiar with the concept of toasts from Android development and Material Design.

But regardless of how familiar you are with the concept of a “toast”, work has been progressing on try to pave the existing cow paths different UI library definitions have set for said potential component. Unfortunately, the level of concern given to the accessibility and inclusive UX of a toast component varies quite a bit, depending on which component library you review.


Defining a toast


At a high level, toasts should be used to indicate the completion of a task or process initiated by the user or the application itself. For instance, a notification verifying the saving of a file, that a message had been properly sent, or a that a meeting was about to start.

If someone were to ignore, or miss a toast message, due to its timed display, there should be no negative impact on their current activities or the status that the message conveyed. Using the previous examples, ignoring a toast message would still mean that a file was saved, that a message was sent, or that a meeting was about to start.


Inclusive UX of a toast

A toast component should be considered a type of status message, and thus should be given a role="status". This will ensure that when a toast is displayed on screen, its contents will be, politely, communicated to assistive technologies, such as screen readers.

Ideally, a toast component should contain no interactive controls, as by doing so an immediate divergence of inclusive UX is introduced.


See the source link for a list of issues and some ways to mitigate them.

Git: insert a new commit between two past commits

I recently had to commit a bunch of stuff I’d been working on in a logical sequence, but forgot to include a crucial bit of code until I’d already done a bunch of the commits. I didn’t want to have to redo all of them just to add the missing code, but I also didn’t want to end up with a commit sequence that wouldn’t work if checked out at a point before the missing code. This is where Git saved my ass. While I use TortoiseGit rather than the commandline, the concepts are the same:

Turns out to be quite simple, the answer found here. Suppose you’re on a branch branch. Perform these steps:

  • create a temporary branch from the commit after you want to insert the new commit (in this case commit A):

    git checkout -b temp A
  • perform the changes and commit them, creating a the commit, let’s call it N:

    git commit -a -m "Message"

    (or git add followed by git commit)

  • rebase the commits you want to have after the new commit (in this case commits B and C) onto the new commit:

    git rebase temp branch

(possibly you need to use -p to preserve merges, if there were any - thanks to a no longer existing comment by ciekawy)

  • delete the temporary branch:

    git branch -d temp

After this, the history looks as follows:

A -- N -- B -- C

It is of course possible that some conflicts will appear while rebasing.

In case your branch is not local-only this will introduce rewriting history, so might cause serious problems.

The self-fulfilling prophecy of poor mobile performance

There are plenty of stories floating around about how some organization improved performance and suddenly saw an influx of traffic from places they hadn’t expected. This is why. We build an experience that is completely [unusable] for them, and is completely invisible to our data. We create, what Kat Holmes calls, a “mismatch”. So we look at the data and think, “Well, we don’t get any of those low-end Android devices so I guess we don’t have to worry about that.” A self-fulfilling prophecy.

I’m a big advocate for ensuring you have robust performance monitoring in place. But just as important as analyzing what’s in the data, is considering what’s not in the data, and why that might be.