These snippets are my attempt to save and organize various bits of code, best practices, and resources relating to web development and design. They also function as a to do list of sorts, for things I want to implement in my own code, but haven't yet. The concept is inspired by Jeremy Keith's links and CSS-Tricks, among other things. Enjoy.

Avoid Large, Complex Layouts and Layout Thrashing

Layout is where the browser figures out the geometric information for elements: their size and location in the page. Each element will have explicit or implicit sizing information based on the CSS that was used, the contents of the element, or a parent element. The process is called Layout in Chrome, Opera, Safari, and Internet Explorer. In Firefox it’s called Reflow, but effectively the process is the same.

Similarly to style calculations, the immediate concerns for layout cost are:

  1. The number of elements that require layout.
  2. The complexity of those layouts.


  • Layout is normally scoped to the whole document.
  • The number of DOM elements will affect performance; you should avoid triggering layout wherever possible.
  • Assess layout model performance; new Flexbox is typically faster than older Flexbox or float-based layout models.
  • Avoid forced synchronous layouts and layout thrashing; read style values then make style changes.

See the source link for details and solutions.

Dark mode images: reducing brightness and contrast

A good rule is to decrease the brightness and contrast of images a bit so that it looks comfortable to the eyes when it’s against a dark background. A super bright image on a super dark background can be jarring and dimming the image reduces some of that heavy contrast.


The CSS filter() function is more than capable of handling this for us:

Code language: CSS

/* Apply the filter directly on the body tag */
body.dark-theme img {
  filter: brightness(.8) contrast(1.2);
}/* Or apply it via media query */
@media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {
  img {
    filter: brightness(.8) contrast(1.2);

The color-scheme meta tag

Code language: HTML

<meta name="color-scheme" content="dark light">

The browser will use this information in tandem with the user’s browser or device settings to determine what colors to use for everything from background and foregrounds to form controls and scrollbars. The primary use for <meta name="color-scheme"> is to indicate compatibility with—and order of preference for—light and dark color modes.

Standard metadata names - HTML: HyperText Markup Language | MDN

When this meta tag is added, the browser takes the user’s color scheme preferences into consideration when rendering UA-controlled elements of the page (like a <button>). It renders colors for the root background, form controls, and spell-check features (as well as any other UA-controlled styles) based on the user’s preference.


Although themes are manually styled for the most part (which overrides the UA styles), informing the browser about the supported themes helps to avoid even the slightest chance of a potential FOIT situation. This is true for those occasions where HTML has rendered but CSS is still waiting to load.

A Complete Guide to Dark Mode on the Web | CSS-Tricks

Accessible Text Labels For All

When you navigate this page using VoiceOver, and use the Form Controls menu, you’ll get a list of all form controls on the page, including the Add to Cart buttons.

Quickly scanning these buttons you can tell that they provide very little value, as there is no way to tell which product each button corresponds to. How does a user know which button they want to go to and press if they don’t know which product it corresponds to?


A popular example of Voice recognition software used to browse the Web is Dragon Naturally Speaking.


Seeing it in action is the best way to get an idea of how it’s used. So, to quickly demonstrate how it is used on the Web, Level Access created a video demoing Dragon Naturally Speaking to fill out a form on a page. The following video is a short clip from their video which you can find and watch in full on [YouTube].


When the dragon user (in the video) wants to select a form control, he speaks out the visual text label of that control. This is one of many reasons why visual labels are important in user interfaces.

So when we have a series of Add to Cart buttons, a dragon user will speak the label of the button in order to interact with it. This is why adding text in the middle of the string makes it inaccessible. The content in the middle of the string would break the visible label. The user would be telling dragon to interact with a button whose label is not what it visually appears to be.


So whenever you need to add additional text to a visible label, it best come after what’s visually shown.

Similarly, always ensure the accessible name (announced by screen readers) matches the visual label as much as possible. This means that you’ll also want to avoid adding a label using aria-label that does not match the text label that is shown on a control.